What is Multiple Sclerosis?
MS i.e., Multiple sclerosis, is a type of disease in which your immune system damages the protective shell (myelin) that covers your nerves.
The damage caused by myelin disrupts the coordination between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, your veins can worsen on their own, which makes it difficult to recover.
Its signs and symptoms vary widely; depending on the amount of damage, it affects the nerves. Some people severely suffering from multiple sclerosis may lose the ability to walk independently or entirely, while many people can avoid problems with it until a new symptom develops.
There is no cure available for multiple-sclerosis, but its treatment can improve your current condition rapidly, and you can protect yourself from this problem.
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Types of Multiple Sclerosis
How many types of multiple sclerosis?
There are four types of multiple-sclerosis.
Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)
It is the most common type of multiple-sclerosis. People with RRMS have this recurring temporarily.
Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)
In SPMS, symptoms worsen more rapidly over time. Most people who suffer from RRMS also get SPMS.
Primary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS)
This type of multiple-sclerosis is not very common; it occurs in about 10% of people with multiple-sclerosis. In this, the symptoms worsen gradually from the beginning, and it does not happen again and again.
Progressive-Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (PRMS):
It is a rare form of multiple-sclerosis. The initial onset of PRMS worsens the symptoms and occurs frequently and is not relieved.
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms
What are the symptoms of multiple sclerosis?
Multiple-sclerosis symptoms vary depending on the location of the fibers of the affected nerve.
It may cause the following symptoms –
- Weakness or numbness in one or more organs which usually occur on one side of the body at a time.
- Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often causing pain during eye activity.
- Multiple vision or blurred vision.
- Tingling or pain in parts of the body.
- Electric shock-like sensation during some neck movements, especially when tilting the neck forward.
- Vibration, lack of coordination or unstable gait.
- Speak vaguely.
- Bowel and bladder problems.
Multiple Sclerosis Causes
What causes multiple sclerosis?
The cause of multiple-sclerosis is still unknown. It is considered an autoimmune disease in which your immune system damages the protective shell (myelin) that covers your nerves.
Myelin can be compared to the protective layer of electrical cables. When myelin is damaged, and the nerve is opened, the messages coming to that nerve may be slow or blocked. Nerve damage can also occur.
It is not clear why some people develop multiple-sclerosis, and others do not. Heredity and environmental factors may be responsible
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What are the risk factors for multiple sclerosis?
Multiple-sclerosis can have the following risk factors:
Lateral sclerosis can occur at any age, but it usually affects people between 15 and 60 years of age.
Women are twice as likely to develop multiple-sclerosis than men.
If one of your parents or siblings has multiple-sclerosis, then you are also at high risk of developing it.
Various types of viruses also cause multiple-sclerosis.
If you have thyroid, type 1 sugar, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), you are at higher risk of multiple-sclerosis.
Symptoms appear relatively quickly in smokers.
Prevention of Multiple Sclerosis
How can multiple sclerosis be avoided?
There is no known way to prevent the onset of multiple-sclerosis. People suffering from this can manage and reduce their symptoms in some ways. Like –
- Changes in nutrient consumption. (Avoiding caffeine and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco)
- Do not consume allergens.
- Avoiding processed foods and taking supplements.
- To exercise
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
How is multiple sclerosis diagnosed?
To diagnose multiple-sclerosis, your doctor will need neurological tests, medical history, and other tests.
The following tests can be done in this:
The use of a dye helps MRI detect active and inactive lesions in your brain and spinal cord.
Evoked potentials test
This requires stimulation of the pathways of the nerves to analyze electrical activity in your brain.
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Your doctor may use this test to look for abnormalities in your spine. It can help in diagnosing infectious diseases.
Doctors use blood tests to eliminate the risk of other conditions with similar symptoms.
Diagnosis of multiple-sclerosis requires evidence of a nerve’s vein detachment from the vein at different times in more than one region of your brain, spinal cord, or ophthalmic vein.
Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
How is multiple sclerosis treated?
The most common treatment for multiple-sclerosis is medication. The dosage of the drug can vary by people. The patient has to take this medicine weekly or monthly.
The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the type of multiple-sclerosis. For example, people suffering from RRMS and PRMS are given drugs that do not occur frequently. Inefficiency can also be cured with these medicines.
Some researchers believe that vitamin D deficiency can also increase multiple sclerosis.
People suffering from PPMS and SPMS are less susceptible to drugs.
Medications are used to treat people suffering from them to reduce some symptoms. For people suffering from PPMS and SPMS, doctors recommend daily exercise, healthy eating, and physical therapy. It is also useful to take plenty of biotins, a B vitamin.
People with multiple-sclerosis may see a reduction in their symptoms and increase their quality of life with these alternative treatments.
Multiple Sclerosis Risks & Complications
What are the complications of multiple sclerosis?
People with multiple-sclerosis may have the following complications –
- Muscle stiffness or spasms
- Paralysis in the legs usually
- Problems of the bladder, bowel or sexual functions
- Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or mood changes
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