What is Alzheimer disease
Alzheimer disease is a rapidly spreading disease that damages memory and other critical mental functions.
It is the most common cause of dementia, which reduces our intellectual capacity significantly. These types of changes can prove to be bad for our day to day life.
In Alzheimer disease, the brain cells begin to form and disappear on their own, causing a steady decline in memory and mental functions.
Presently Alzheimer disease medications and management strategies may temporarily improve its symptoms. At times, it helps increase the capacity of brain functions of people who have Alzheimer disease and keeping them independent. But there is no cure available for Alzheimer disease, so it is necessary to adopt supportive services.
Difference between Alzheimer Disease & Dementia
What is the difference between dementia & Alzheimer disease?
Dementia & Alzheimer disease is not the same. Dementia is a composite term used to describe memory, problems in daily activities & communication disabilities. Alzheimer disease is the most common type of dementia & affects memory, language, and thinking over time.
Although the symptoms of these two conditions may be the same, it is essential to know the difference between the two. In both cases, the following symptoms occur –
- The decline in thinking ability.
- Memory problems.
- Communication problems.
Some types of dementia will include some of the following Alzheimer symptoms but will not have other symptoms that help differentiate the two conditions –
- Difficulty remembering recent events or conversations.
- Depression or depression
- Behavior change
- Difficulty speaking, swallowing or walking
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Stages of Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer disease has the following three stages –
Friends, family, and other individuals of the patient may feel problems in the initial phase. During extended therapy, physicians can detect problems in the patient’s memory or concentration.?
In the early stage of Alzheimer disease, the patient may independently drive, perform other chores, and social activities. Despite this, the patient may feel that he is experiencing problems with his memory, forgetting familiar words, or forgetting the place of everyday objects.
Its symptoms are –
- Problems with thinking of the correct word or name.
- Trouble remembering names when tested with new people.
- Challenges in working in social or workspace.
- Forget the things you have just read.
- To lose or misplace a valuable item.
- Having trouble planning or organizing.
The middle stage of Alzheimer disease is usually the longest and can last for many years. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer needs more care.?
A person with Alzheimer often gets confused in words and may behave strangely, such as refusing to take a bath. Damage to nerve cells in the brain can make it difficult to express and perform routine tasks.
At this time, the symptoms become noticeable to others such as –
Forgetting about events or your personal history.
Feeling moody or erosive, in mentally challenging situations.
Unable to remember your address or telephone number or high school or college.
To be confused in the place or day of your presence.
Need help choosing the right clothes for the season or any occasion.
Problems in controlling the bladder and intestine.
Changes in sleep time, such as sleeping during the day and restless at night.
Personality and behavioral changes, such as suspiciousness and confusion or repetitive behavior such as repeated hand jerking.
In this phase, the person loses the ability to react to their surrounding environment, continue the conversation, and, ultimately, control activities. They have difficulties telling them about the pain.?
As memory and cognitive skills deteriorate, significant personality changes may occur, and individuals may need assistance in daily activities.
Its symptoms are –
- Always need support for daily activities and personal care.
- Losing awareness of recent experiences and your surroundings.
- Physical abilities, such as trouble walking, sitting, and swallowing.
- Increased problems communicating.
- Increased risk for infection, especially pneumonia.
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Alzheimer Disease Symptoms
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer disease?
The initial symptoms of Alzheimer disease can be so mild and subtle that you cannot see any change in your thinking or behavior. These symptoms are –
- Losing things and the inability to find back.
- Memory problems are affecting everyday life.
- Difficulties in planning or problem-solving.
- Taking more time to complete regular daily tasks.
- Having trouble setting distances and differentiating colors.
- Difficulty interacting.
- Making incorrect decisions due to poor guessing.
- Isolation from social activities.
- Changes in mood and personality and increased anxiety.
Alzheimer disease spreads to more areas of the brain & family, and friends begin to feel a change in your thinking and behavior. These symptoms are –
- Problems are identifying friends and family members.
- Language problems and difficulty with reading, writing, and working with numbers.
- Difficulty in organizing thoughts and thinking cautiously.
- Inability to learn new tasks or deal with new & unexpected situations.
- Improper anger.
- Perceptual problems, such as problems with getting up from a chair or setting a table, repeating things or activities, and sometimes muscle jerks.
- Delay, confusion, doubt or insanity and irritability.
- Impulse control problems, such as improper timing or using bad language in places.
- Disturbances of behavioral symptoms, such as restlessness, excitement, anxiety, crying, and wandering.
- Lack of bladder and bowel control.
- Weight loss.
- To have a seizure.
- Skin infections.
- Groaning, sighing, or grunting.
- Difficulty swallowing.
Alzheimer Disease Causes & Risk Factors
Why does Alzheimer disease occur?
Scientists believe that in most people, Alzheimer disease arises from a combination of genetic, lifestyle, & environmental factors that affect the brain over time.
Less than 5% of the time, Alzheimer is caused by specific genetic changes that guarantee the disease to develop.
However, the cause of Alzheimer disease is not yet completely specific, but its effect on the brain is clear. Alzheimer disease harms or kills brain cells. Compared to a healthy brain, a brain affected by Alzheimer disease has very few cells and very few connections between living cells.
What are the risk factors for Alzheimer disease?
Following are the risk factors of Alzheimer disease –
People over the age of 85 are at higher risk of getting Alzheimer disease.
You are also at a higher risk of having Alzheimer disease than other people in the family.
Low academic and professional attainment.
Prior to head injury.
Sleep disorders (e.g., sleep apnea).
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Prevention of Alzheimer Disease
What can prevent Alzheimer disease?
At the moment, there is no proven way to avoid Alzheimer’s disease, but scientific research is going on in this subject. As of now, it is believed that reducing the risk of heart disease can reduce the risk of Alzheimer disease.
Several factors that increase the risk of heart disease can also increase the risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Some such relevant factors are –
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- More fat
- Diabetes (sugar disease)
Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease
How is Alzheimer disease diagnosed?
Doctors cannot definitively diagnose Alzheimer disease before death because, after death, they can scrutinize the brain with a microscope. Still, they can test other conditions that may cause symptoms similar to Alzheimer disease Are. These tests are-
Health History Check
Your doctor will do a physical examination of you and ask questions about your past and present health. Like –
Any trouble with your symptoms and daily activities.
Other medical problems now or before.
The medicines you take.
Your personal history, such as your marital status, living conditions, employment, sexual history & important life events.
Your mental state. The doctor will ask you several questions that will help them understand if you are having any mental health problems, such as depression.
Family history and any genetic disease in the family.
This is a short test that tests your problem-solving skills, attention span, counting skills, and memory, etc. These tests will help your doctor know if there are problems with the parts involved in your brain’s learning, thinking, memory, or planning skills.
In a CT scan, a machine takes X-rays of your body in many different ways over a very short period, and a computer converts the scanned images into series. CT scans may show regular brain changes in the later stages of Alzheimer.
MRI makes very clear images of your body using a large magnet, radio waves, and computer and helps doctors see if a tumor or stroke is causing Alzheimer-like symptoms. It can also help show brain changes associated with the disease.
Alzheimer Disease Treatment
What is the treatment of Alzheimer disease?
Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but some medications can help with cognitive and behavioral symptoms.
Alzheimer’s Disease Complications
What other problems can cause Alzheimer disease?
Alzheimer disease can cause problems related to memory and language. A person with Alzheimer disease is not able to
Problems are expressing pain (for example, pain in dentistry).
Problems are expressing other disease symptoms.
Problem following the prescribed treatment plan.
Problems are identifying and describing the side effects of the drug.
As Alzheimer’s disease progresses to its final stages, brain changes begin to affect bodily functions. Such as problems with swallowing, balance, and bowel and bladder control. These effects may exacerbate additional health problems such as –
Pneumonia and other infections
People with Alzheimer often carry food or fluids in their airways and lungs due to difficulty swallowing, which can cause pneumonia.
Being unable to empty the bladder may require the placement of a tube to remove and collect urine, increasing the risk of urinary tract infections, which can be more severe and even fatal.
People with Alzheimer become weak and have an increased risk of falls.
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